Dendritic cells vaccine.
Dendritic cells - the first stage of immune response.
The human body is equipped with an amazing set of tools to detect alien organisms and fight them. Dendritic cells are one of these "means of response".
When an antigen (foreign body molecules - viral or bacterial infections of the external or internal origin) appears in the body, dendritic cells capture and “display” it, so that the lymphocytes (main cells of the immune system) can "see" antigens, and the immune reaction could be launched: foreign elements would be recognized, antibodies (molecules, attacking specific foreign antigens) produced, ands cells, different from normal cells, would be attacked.
Immune response is carried out by various means, the key of which are lymphocytes. After the first reaction to the foreign element (when dendritic cells detect, and display the antigen, making it visible for lymphocytes), T-cell and B-cell lymphocytes take action (Figure 1).
T-lymphocytes (or T-cells, including T-helpers, T-killers and T-suppressors) recognize antigens as the target, and launch the process of immune response. T-helper cells activate other cells: B-lymphocytes, which produce antibodies that will fight with antigens, T-killers that will destroy the damaged cells of the organism (infected by viruses, bacteria or other pathogenic elements), NK-lymphocytes (natural killers), which specifically fight against cancer and viral cells.
Figure 1. Immune reaction mechanism
As shown above, the body has a great set of tools for identifying alien elements and fighting them. Scientists and physicians see their aim to find effective ways to treat cancer and other diseases by means that are inherent in the body, by activating the body's own defense mechanisms. Whereas previously it was considered that the immune system is not able to independently deal with cancers, recent studies have shown that by introducing data about the targeted antigens into dendritic cells, an effective immune response to cancer can be created. The great advantage of this treatment method is that it does not involve side effects and does not destroy healthy cells.
Mechanism of dendritic cells vaccine.
Dendritic cells vaccine is prepared from the patient's own dendritic cells and their precursor cells. Dendritic calls are relatively easy to obtain from the peripheral blood or bone marrow stem cells.
Dendritic cells are genetically modified: the structure of the tumor antigens is embedded into them.
|The cell captures these antigen structure.||
|The captured “piece” is structurally modified and acquires a form that could be detected by lymphocytes.||
|Progenitor cell develops into a dendritic cell, which carries the tumor marker, and can transmit it to the lymphocytes (immune cells).||
Dendritic cells are administered to a patient, and they transmit information about antigens to lymphocytes (T-helpers) , launching immune reaction: production of B-lymphocytes, T-killer cells and NK-cells (natural killer cells) which attack the tumor.
Lymphocytes, that “know” the features of the antigen, spread throughout the body with blood and find antigens with these features in tissues and organs.
|Once the antigen (cancer cell) is found, the lymphocyte attacks it and sends a signal, which launches the production of other immune cells|
A vaccine based on dendritic cells is effective both on early stages of the disease, and in treatment of cancer of IV degree.
It is effectively used to treat many types of cancer, including:
- Breast cancer
- Prostate cancer,
Vaccination with dendritic cells is a method of treatment, which involves a set of procedures, ranging from a thorough diagnosis, to follow-up procedures, rehabilitation and monitoring after vaccination.
We offer to our patients a full range of treatment services based on proven efficient global research and clinical application, cutting-edge medicine of Japan, combined with the comfort and convenience of medical care.